THE ROLE OF CENTRAL BANK IN ESTABLISHING NIGERIA ECONOMY
Central banks are general known to be concerned with the maintenance of monetary stability. This task involves the regulation of money in circulation consistent with the isomorphic capacity of the economy axiomatically, excessive growth in money supply rates to high rates of spending on domestic or foreign goods given that domestic supply of goods and services in essentially in elastic in the short run, excess liquidity is likely to result in substantial inflationary is likely to result in substantial inflationary pressures in the economy. To the extent that spending pressures are directed towards foreign goods or (assets0 balance of payment pressures will ensure. Thus, the task of monetary authorities is to ensure that the growth in the domestic liquidity is consistent with the objectives of out-put growth, inflation and the balance of payments. This at any given time the CBN would ensure that supply of money is sufficiently optimal to sustain non-inflationary out-put rate and exchange rate stability. One of the strategies of achieving this objectives is through the adoption of the liquidity management policies / techniques which afford the CBN, the use of monetary policy instrument to influence bank reserve and consequently the growth in money supply. The ability of the central bank to effectively control domestic liquidity depends interaction the level of the economic development particularly the state of its financial system the number and types of policy instruments available to the central banks and degree of harmonization between monetary and fiscal policies.
The growth and development of international trade along west African coast played a major role in extending the medium of exchange beyond trade by barter in the nineteenth century.The ‘’native currency’’ system which relied on item such as manila, cowries, brass and copper rods had to accommodate foreign currencies such as Maria Theresa dollar and British silver coins increased trade motivated the setting up of the Bank of British West African [BWA] in 1894, thereby drastically reducing the barter system and ushering in a rudimentary form of commercial banking.The issue of legal tender currency for the West African region was however deferred till 1912 when the west African currency Board [WACB] was established. The WACB was an offshoot of the recommendation of the EMMOE committee set up by the then secretary of state the Rt. Ifon. Lewis Harcourt. The WACB retained the services of the BBWA as its currency distribution agent. It set up four currency centers in Lagos [Nigeria] and Bathurst, now Banjul [the Gambia].The currency in circulation in West Africa increased steadily through the 1950s in response to the growing demand and increase in the World price for west African primary products such as cocoa, groundnuts and palm oil. The WACB, however, did not have discretionary control over the money stock of the territories under the money stock of the territories under its sphere of influence. It was set up primarily to promote the influencing of export trade. Specifically, it was changed with the issue of a west African currency, the repatriation of such currencies and the investment of reserves.