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The influence of home background on academic performance of pupil in primary school

The influence of home background
on academic performance of pupil in primary school of Nsit Ibom Local
Government Area of Akwa Ibom State 
(Educational Administration).



Chapter one


Background to the study

The family is a
social unit in any society and it is the source of early stimulation and experience
in children. The home influences the child at the most possible time of his
life at a time when his mind is most receptive. It provides the first
impression which may last through the whole of the child’s life. The child
often sees the parents, siblings and things in their immediate environment to
be most significant and they are capable of promoting or diminishing him in
self worth and academic performance.

The background
is the condition and immediate surroundings in which the pupils find
themselves. It is also refer to as the physical and psychological conditions
that affect children (Durojaiye, 1976). The parents or guidance of these pupils
are responsible for providing the right home environment that will facilitate
effective learning for their wards. Furthermore, in pupil’s home background,
some factors that influence their academic performance include: parental educational
background, parental economic status (At least an average financial status),
parental marital status and parental home location.

educational background, could be seen in the way parents and other educated
people in the home get involve in encouraging these pupils to learn, teach and
guide the pupils in doing their home work, pronounce words correctly and
practice how to make correct sentences. The educational background of the
parents will also be expressed in their frequent use of English Language as a
medium of communication in the home (John 1994). These will help in laying a
good foundation for self expression, confidence in speaking good English in the
public and good understanding of Basic English concepts in the school.

On the aspect
of parental economic status as it relates to pupils academic performance, much
emphasis was laid on the ability of the parents to provide necessary facilities
or materials that can help in making the learning of English Language easy for
the pupils. This involves the provision of mini library for children which
include; textbooks, story books, and picture books and spelling charts which
will help the pupils to learn words identification, correct spellings, correct
sentences, master the use of correct tenses in line with pictures, (United
State Department of Labor, 2006).

Pupils from
average/high income home background, that have some educative media in their
homes such as Computer, television set, radio, tape recorder will be at an
advantage in their performance because these media will help them to listen to
good speeches in English Language, watch educative programmes on television
such as junior debate, Cartoons, tales by moonlight, all these exposures will
certainly reflect on the pupils academic performance at school.

In assessing
the parental marital status on pupils academic performance, much attention is
on sound human relations, as the home bckground that is tensed due to divorce
or unhealthy atmosphere of quarrelling, fighting due to polygamy cannot favour
learning, in the home as the mind of the pupils will not be settled in order to
give room for creativity. Ekanem (2004) stated that harmonious home create
emotional stability in the child at home and subsequently throughout his school
life. Hence the researcher will also be of concerned with the careful study of
the influence of single parenthood due to broken home, death, widowhood and
intact home on the academic performance of pupils in English Language.

In terms of the
influence of home location on the academic performance of pupils, the concern
of the researcher is with the socio-metric factors such as the kinds of social
activities around the home environment of the pupils. For instance, a pupil
that lives near the market square will adopt the language of the people around
him which is pidgin. This could affect the child in learning good English at
school. Likewise, a pupil that lives in a communal compound where pidgin is the
order of the day would also be affected negatively in the learning of good
English at school.

pupils from homes located in an environment where there is noisy traffic, noisy
sound of machine from ply-wood industry and market square will be affect
negatively in their academic performance  because the noisy environment will disturb
them from concentrating while reading their novels, textbooks ,Story books and
even in listening to educative radio programmes. Hence, Durojaiye (1976)
maintained that physical and psychological conditions of the home environment
affect the children academically.

Theoretical framework

The theory chosen for this study
is humanistic theory. This theory was chosen because it attempts to explain how
human beings are motivated by various factors such as biology and achievement
of power (Abraham Maslow 1954). Maslow explains how to achieve a given goal (
in this case academic achievement) is directed and sustained by different
factors ranging from psychological, safety and love needs among others.

Abraham Maslow (1991) posted a
hierarchy of human needs. According to him an individual is ready to react upon
growth needs among which lies education if only the deficiency needs such as
psychological needs, safety needs, belongingness, love needs and esteem needs
are met.

1.2.1  Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

The theoretical framework
according to Abraham Maslow2001-2004 was represented diagrammatically as shown:
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn,
starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survival
itself. Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well-being
are satisfied are we concerned with the higher order needs of influence and
personal development. Conversely, if the things that satisfy our lower order
needs are swept away, we are no longer concerned about the maintenance of our
higher order needs.

1.3 Statement
of the problem

Academic performance of primary school pupil in
Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State is of great concern.
Information obtained from the school administration indicates that there is
evidence to show that children’s performance is influenced by different factors
in and out of school. Among the factors influencing academic performance  is the home background of the children.
Academic performance of pupil in primary schools indicates the relationship
between children’s residential area, number of people in the household,
distance of the school from the children’s homes, parent/guardian level of
education and attitude towards educational achievement and help for homework.
Information obtained indicates that children from poor home background
perform   badly in primary schools as
compared to those with better home background.

Purpose of the study

The main
aim of this study is to investigate the influence of home background on academic
performance of pupil in primary school of Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of
Akwa Ibom State. The specific objectives of the study include;

determine the relationship between parents educational background and academic
performance of pupils in primary schools ofNsit ubium Local Government Area
of Akwa Ibom State.

To determine the influence of
parents economic status on academic performance of primary school pupils Nsit ubium
Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

To determine the influence of
home location on academic performance of primary school pupils in Nsit ubium
Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

To determine the influence of
parents marital status on academic performance of pupils in primary schools of
Nsit ubium Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.