THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
1.1 Background to the Study
The importance of education is quite clear. Education is regarded as key to empowerment. Hence it is the key to national development. Education, according to Good (1993) as cited in Omegun, (2004) is the aggregate of all the processes by means of which a person develops his or her abilities, attitudes, and other forms of behaviour of positive value in the society in which he or she lives. In similar vein, (Gharavi- Naeeni (2010) says that Education is the knowledge of how: to put one’s potentials to maximum use. In essence, one can simply say that a human being does not have proper sense until he or she is educated. This means that without the correct commitment, all education would be useless. People who do not have the correct commitment will not be able to take the initiative to apply it they still will not be successful.
Education can be formal, non-formal and informal. Formal education takes place within the school system. It is organized, planned, and systematically structured with life as its content and definite forms on- formal education on the other hand occurs outside the formal school system.
Although less structured. It is more task and skill oriented more flexible and learner- centered.
The informal education is impromptu and non pre- meditated. The women and girl child education is a close articulation of the formal, non-formal and informal education approaches to and mechanism for the awakening of an all round development of the women potential.
It has been recognized that qualitative education is the major source of human empowerment that eradicates poverty globally. With sound education, labour is moved from unskilled to skilled type which enhances its productivity and by intuition the income that labour earns.
Attention has been directed to women and girl child education, giving its clear link to socioeconomic development. The lessons of international instruments and summits such as the
Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAN) adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1979, the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995, and the recent Beijing + 5 initiative, underscoring the important of women education, have not been lost on policy makers and stakeholders in Nigeria.
Apart from investing in the formal education, the Federal Government of Nigeria has made effort
in adult and non-formal education towards addressing the education of women. As aptly noted by Udeani (2004), investing in formal, adult and non-formal education and training for girls and women, with its exceptionally high social and economic return has proved to be one of the means of achieving sustainable economic growth and development. According to her, women make up about 50% or more of the population of any given nation. no country can therefore afford to leave out this percentage in the essential process of formal education.
Moreover, a review of related literature on women education and development has confirmed the multiplying effect of women education on socioeconomic development in unequivocal terms. Education can enhance the skills of women as workers create self employment and promote their higher living standards. By enhancing skills of .women, they become more orderly and more productive. By self employment, girl and women entrepreneurs are encouraged to emerge in- the small and medium scale enterprises, which are willing to take risks and invest in a volatile environment. In this case, women are expected to engage in viable businesses and earn incomes that will enable them to fetch higher incomes in the labour market. Equality of access to and attainment of educational qualifications is necessary if more women are to be entrepreneurs, receive high income and attend to high echelon in organizations. In any case, educated women are able to enjoy good standard of living and exercise grater ‘voice’ in decision making in the family, the community, the work place and the society (Alele- Williams, 1986; Orisanya-Olumuyiwa, 2000; Snyder, 2000 in Udeani, 2004). More critically, through education, she acquires feeling of self worth and confidence required for a public life (Enemuo, 2001). Besides, education is of a central importance for occupational attainment, a critical component of socioeconomic status.
Several research studies have been conducted on women education and its link to socioeconomic development. More research is still needed in this area to identify its link to the socioeconomic development of women professional jobs or occupation. This present research study is set to assess the contribution of education to socioeconomic development of women bankers where research studies appear not to have been covered.
Education has limited women to take active part in development. In societies, gender roles have reduced women to the home front, preventing them from participating in and benefiting from developmental efforts. This present research study identifies education as a crucial factor that will help women to play their role in nation’s building. It is important to note that Nigeria ranks low in development (UNDP, 1996). This is why Nigeria embarked on many educational programme aimed at increasing girl child enrollment, retention and completion at all levels of formal education and establishing programmes to promote women’s adult and non- formal education.
Furthermore, seventeen years after embarking on many educational programmes in both formal and adult education, it appears that there is low level of education that still affects women to contribute to development. The vast majority of Nigeria is mostly women is seemingly affected by high degree of poverty level which has given rise to the pitiable condition of the Nigerian child in terms of health and education. It is against this information that this present study seeks to examine the link between women education and socioeconomic development.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Women are not properly monetized and marketable. This is why their efforts are not factored in the Gross National Product (GNP) computation (Enemuo, 2001). Low level of education has been identified as one of the factors affecting women in contributing to national development. The high rate of illiteracy in Nigeria has made sizable number of women to be unskilled, hence they to resort to low job (Adelakun, 2011) resulting to income. As a result, they are not exercising their voice in decision making of the family, the community and place of work. It was indicated on the Human Development Index (2010) document that adult literacy rate of at least 65% would be attained by 20 15. Therefore the strategy aimed at empowering the women to acquire the skills and knowledge that would prepare them for the vast challenges. In this vein, this study attempts to assess the role of women education in socioeconomic development in Nigeria Nigeria. In doing so, some selected women bankers in Assess bank, First bank, United Bank of Africa and Wema bank located at the University of Lagos, Akoka were used by the researcher to determine the contribution of education to their occupational attainment, income generation, promotion and self worth.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main objective of this study is to assess the contribution of education to socioeconomic development of women bankers. However, the specific objectives are to:
1. Examine the relationship between education and ‘occupational attainment of women.
2. Assess the relationship between’ education and women earning high income in their professional jobs and improved quality of life.
3. Examine the link between education and women attainment of higher position in their communities and work places.
4. Assess the relationship between education and enhancing women self worth and personality.
1.4 Research Questions
The questions that will guide this present study are:
1. Does education contribute to women employment in high paying- jobs?
2. Do skilled women earn better income and enjoy good standard of living than those who are not skilled?
3. Will education enhance the capability of women bankers towards attaining important position in their communities and place of work?
4. Is education related to raising the self worth and confidence of women in their public life?
1.5 The Hypotheses
The hypotheses formulated for this study are:
1. There will be no significant relationship between education and women securing well paying jobs.
2. There will be no significant relationship between low level of education and women receiving high income and improved quality of life their low pay in the bank
3. There will be no significant relationship between education and improving women capability towards becoming managers in the bank
4. There will be no significant relationship between education and improving the socioeconomic development of women bankers.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This present study is relevant in the true sense that it will help government to systematically and coherently implement the established Beijing Platform for Action directed to the fundamental changes in the situation of women. It will help educational institutions or training centers to have better knowledge of gender sensitive. This study will also increase the momentum for women education in Nigeria. In other words, it will encourage government and stakeholders to increase investment in formal and adult education since investment in education for girls and women has been shown repeatedly to be one of the most important determinants of development, with positive implications for all other measures of progress this present study therefore indentifies and documents the present linkage between women bankers and socioeconomic development since research study in this area has been scanty. This study will help education planners and policy makers to place more emphasis on literacy and primary education in order to fight poverty. The society will have to benefit from this study because when women are educated, it has positive externalities. This proposed study will also contribute to the existing body of knowledge.
1. 7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This research study assesses the contribution of education to socioeconomic development of selected women bankers in Lagos Mainland Local Government Area where research study seemed not to have covered. This study will cover 60 male and 60 female bankers selected from the Wema bank, Access bank, First bank and UBA branch located in the University of Lagos, Akoka. This is because the researcher does not have enough resources to conduct the study using all banks in the Lagos Mainland Local Government Area.
1.8 Operational Definition of terms
Empowerment: Raising one from naive to more critical level of consciousness.
Socioeconomic: The individual wellbeing vis a vis their level of income, education and their quality of life.
Development: The ability to make good use or resources available to individual.
Education: Building a complete human being
Adult Education: Learning activities that is built around the express of people from 18 years and above who are not attending school on regular basis, or completers of compulsory education or other learning that enhances their self worth throughout life time.