Title page ——–ii

Certification ——–iii

Dedication ——–iv

Acknowledgement ——v

Table of content ——-vi

List of tables ——–ix

Abstract ———xi

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction 

Background of the Study —–1

Statement Of The Problem —–6

Hypothesis Of The Study —–7

Purpose Of The Study ——7

Scope Of The Study ——8

The Significance Of The Study —-9

Limitation Of The Study ——10

Definition Of Terms ——11

CHAPTER TWO: Review Of Related Literature 

Sources Of Examination Leakages —-32

Methods Of Examination Malpractice —34

Causes Of Examination Malpractices —42

Consequences Of Examination Malpractices -45

Preventive Methods Of Examination Malpractice48

Theoretical Framework ——52

CHAPTER THREE: Methodology 

Research Design ——-55

Population For The Study —–56

Sample And Sampling Technique —-56

Instrument For Data Collection —-57

Validity Of Instrument ——58

Reliability Of Instrument —–58

Method Of Data Analysis —–59

CHAPTER FOUR: Data presentation and analysis 

Testing Of Hypothesis ——85

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusions And Recommendation, Suggestions For Further Studies 

Summary ——–96

Conclusion ——–98

Recommendation ——-105

Suggestions For Further Studies —-105

Questionnaire ——-107

References ——–112


Table 1: Organization Of Data: Frequency Distribution Of Variables ——–62

Table 2: Distribution Of Age —–63

Table 3: Distribution Of Marital Status —64

Table 4: Distribution Of Educational Qualification 65

Table 5: Lack Of Preparation —–66

Table 6: Poor Teaching ——67

Table 7: Frequent Strikes —–68

Table 8: Undue Importance Attached—69

Table 9: Peer Influence ——70

Table 10: Love For Money —–71

Table 11: Choosing A Career For Children –72

Table 12: Non-Coverage Of Academic Syllabuses73

Table 13: Lack Of Infrastructural Facilities –74

Table 14: Failure To Inform Candidates –75

Table 15: Loss Of Moral Values —-76

Table 16: Modern Way Of Life —-77

Table 17: Fore-Knowledge Of Examination –78

Table 18: Hiring Impersonator —-79

Table 19: Supervisor And Examination Malpractice 80

Table 20: Supervisors And Gift Items —81

Table 21: Collusion Among Candidates And Invigilators 

Table 22: Mass Cheating —–82

Table 23: Swapping Of Worked Scripts —83

Table 24: In Testing The Above Hypothesis; The Table Below Is Used ——-87

Table 25: In testing the above hypothesis, the table below is used ——–89


The study is all about the factor responsible for examination malpractice in Nigeria, a case study of the faculty of social sciences, University of Benin was used, and during the process of research the researcher was able to carry out a study which start by saying that examination malpractice exists in secondary school, university under graduate programme etc. most students are conversant with the issues of examination malpractice and the various form of examination malpractices that occurs in our schools.

Most student who cheat in competitive examinations like the university matriculation examination (UME) do so because they believe that the exam is a difficult one. If students perceive that the competitive examinations would be difficult, they then develop nervousness before the examinations and do everything possible to pass, including cheating.

Also, the reason behind this studies was that I felt it mandatory for everyone within the society at large to be conversant with the syndrome “which is” examination malpractice that has sowed an evil seed in the heart of the individual society, if care is not taken, this syndrome will endanger the citizenry at large.

The population of this research consists of 486 students in the department of political science at the university of Benin, and the sample of the study that is used is a total number of 100 students which were randomly selected from the four level of the department of political science which comprises 100 level to 400 level.

The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. The questionnaire was validated by the project supervisor.

The reliability of instrument was tested using a test-retest and the statistics used was simple percentage.

The major findings was that most students who cheat in competitive examination like the university matriculation examination (UME) do so because they believe that the competitive examination would be difficult, they then develop nervousness before the examination and do everything to pass, including cheating.

Also, a large sample of the students agreed that they would engage in examination malpractice due to emphasis placed on high quality certificates in Nigeria.

Nigerian are certificate freaks as shown by a large sample of people who embrace a first class graduate or a high flyer in academic. Most student would do anything in order to get these super certificates, to remain in an upper league in society.

The major recommendations was that the legal control of examination malpractice should enact a law as to curtail the total eradication of exam malpractice.

In order to reduce cases of impersonation, which is one of the major types of examination malpractices, government should immediately commence the implementation of its plan of embossing the passport philosophy of candidates in its certificates.

Government at all levels, should provide adequate funds and functional instructional aaid and effective teaching materials to the teachers.

Also, there should be regular monitoring teams otherwise known as inspectors from ministry of education of each state to visit each school for continuity assessment of teaching that deserve praises are rewarded immediately.



Background of the Study

One of the greatest threats to the validity of examinations, the authenticity of the certificate issued and the reliability of the products of the Nigerian educational system is the prevalence of examination malpractices. Examination malpractices in Nigeria can be traced to 1914 when the senior Cambridge local examination leaked. This was even before the university of Benin was set up.

It can therefore be argued that examination malpractices do not constitute a new phenomenon in Nigeria.

Examination malpractice constitute two concepts i.e. examination and malpractice. Examination could be defined as to give somebody a test to see how much he/she knows about a subject while “malpractice means careless or wrongs or illegal behavior”.

Therefore, examination malpractices is defined as an illegal act or behavior while sitting for an examination. Examination leakages cheating, impersonation certificate forgery etc, can be classified as examination. Malpractices since any candidate who indulges in any of these does so to have an undue advantage over other candidates.

Examination malpractice is a phenomenon that has almost crept into virtually every faced of our society. Right from the primary school to the university level and it is even more in the university this days.

Examination malpractice is not peculiar to university of Benin alone, it is a national phenomenon which has reduced the quality of a certificate that are obtainable in the Nigerian educational system. It has been a disturbing development over the years, in which the stake holders in the educational system could not provide a clue to the problem of examination malpractice.

It is disheartening to note the wave of malpractices sweeping across the entire educational system. Examination malpractice can be classified as follows:

Classified as follows 

Cheating copying from cribs, textbooks, notebooks, swapping of scripts, collusion, electronic device means of cheating etc.

Smuggling of worked scripts into the examination room.

Certificate forgery 

Assault on examination administrators.

Examination leakages occur when some candidates have fore knowledge of the contents of the question paper before the examination. If not detected, this fact can render the examination invalid.

WAEC’s experiences of this came in 1963, 1967, 1977 and 1981, the last three attracting the attention of the federal government and leading to the set up of the Alexander Sogbetun and Ojo tribunals to investigate the extent of the leakages.

The national teacher institute also had a taste of leakage right from its first attempt at conducing the teacher’s grade II examination in 1982.

In the article of Odeyemi, an SSS III AFCS Ibadan captioned “How to end examination malpractices in our country”. In the guardian on Sunday 22nd November, 1998 saying exam malpractices come in many different forms U3; illegal purchase of questions papers and answer sheets clandestine sources stealing of proposed examination questions and the use of textbooks or pamphlets during examination periods are all forms of examination malpractices.

In some case, candidates form the habit of sitting together in the seating arrangement that will enable the more intelligent one to whisper answers to the less intelligent ones. At times, candidates smuggle in cribs or paper containing answer codes into the examination halls. Thick denim shirts, jeans trousers, tracksuits and lace-up bots are all used to smuggle answers to examination halls. On some occasions, speech codes, cengh and hand signals are used to exchange answers in the examination hall 

Statement Of The Problem 

The most insurmountable problem facing education in Nigeria as the increase in new method of perpetuating examination malpractice in examination conducted for candidates.

In essence, problems facing university examination conduct could be classified into the following:

What is the problem associated with examination malpractice in one hand.

Is the problems of like of under funding, lack of modern facilities agitation of more salaries by lecturers associated with exam malpractices.

What is the level of student commitment to examination malpractice.

This problem has been threatening the existence of universities and such a serious diseases need a serious treatment in orders to prevent total collapse of the university system and the certificates that are awarded to her students.

Hypothesis Of The Study 

The study has generated some hypothesis. They are as inadequate preparation of the students or candidates does not result to examination malpractice.

Inadequate preparation of the student or candidates leads them to exam malpractice.

The belief that cheating is the only means to pass exam does not lead to examination malpractice.

Purpose Of The Study 

The study is to examine, reasons why examination malpractices are increasing with new and sophisticated tactics emerging on regular basis.

The study is to highlight the nature of examination malpractice.

The study would bring out the participant in the examination malpractice.

The study would also focus on types of examination malpractice, and various effects of examination malpractice would be highlighted through the study.

Preventive methods of examination malpractices mentioned in the course of the study so as to reduce the current magnitude of examination malpractice.

Scope Of The Study 

Examination malpractices are generating in nature and practice, well known to everybody in the society. As a result of the popularity, the study would cut across the student of the faculty of social sciences, University of Benin.

The Significance Of The Study

The magnitude of the problem of examination malpractices would mar the degree of acceptability and reliability of certificates awarded by the university. Agony eventually faced by the penalized candidates after 4 years or study period, disappointments received by candidates parents colossal waste of financial resources on such in their future for such candidates in their future academics pursuits made the study significant for study so as to anchor the consequences awaiting the candidates perpetrating such unholy act called examination malpractices during the examinations and to allow possible solution to the problem.

Limitation Of The Study 

An elaborate study of examination malpractice through the administration of questionnaire to all students of the university of Benin would have been undertaken but for the constraints imposed by time factors and financial implication of such elaborates study.

And non-availability of enough literature texts on examination malpractices is another constraints to the study.

Notwithstanding these limitations, the research results remained valid and important.

In essence, the bottom line constraints are time, money and literature texts.

Definition Of Terms 

It becomes necessary for the writer to throw more light on the operation definition of terms which are highlighted below:

Education: this can be seen as a life-long process which emanates from one stage then to the final stage.

Also some authors, believe it to the fact that education can at-times be obtained from formal, informal and non-formal etc. in schooling process.

Malpractice: it means careless or wrong behavior exhibited by pupil.

Examination: this could be traced to the events that occur during schooling, hours, which then is subjected to take the pupil to another stage in class, sometimes, it is awarded for promotion reasons, screening purposes etc.

Cheating: it means when one is copying from textbooks, electronic device etc.

Examination leakages: it occur when some candidates have fore knowledge of the contents of the questions paper before the examination.